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Codeine is indicated in children older than 12 years of age for the treatment of acute moderate pain which is not considered to be relieved by other analgesics such as paracetamol or ibuprofen (alone).Codeine should not be used in children below the age of 12 years because of the risk of opioid toxicity due to the variable and unpredictable metabolism of codeine to morphine (see sections 4.3 and 4.4).About 3 to 7% of all hospital admissions in the United States are for treatment of adverse drug reactions.
For the short term treatment of acute moderate pain which is not relieved by Paracetamol, ibuprofen or aspirin alone such as migraine attacks including the symptoms of migraine headache, nausea and vomiting.Other adverse drug reactions, typically those that are uncommon, are not detected until the drug has been on the market long enough to be used by a large number of people.Thus, doctors are required to report suspected adverse drug reactions to the FDA.Other serious side effects include problems breathing, light-headedness or fainting, blurred vision, confusion, nausea, and urinary retention. Food and Drug Administration has rated medications for safety during pregnancy on a scale of A through X for decades.The doctor should be notified immediately of any serious side effects. This rating is being gradually replaced with more detailed information, but the ranking is still helpful as a quick reference for many existing medications.
Digestive disturbances—loss of appetite, nausea, a bloating sensation, constipation, and diarrhea—are particularly common adverse drug reactions, because most drugs are taken by mouth and pass through the digestive tract. In older people (see Aging and Drugs), the brain is commonly affected, often resulting in drowsiness and confusion.